Navaghana was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned in the late 11th century. His capital was at Junagadh. He was a contemporary of Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Chaulukya ruler of Anahilapataka. According to bardic legends, Jayasimha attacked during his reign and he was defeated and became is vassal. He moved capital to Junagadh. He was succeeded by Khengara who had vowed to take revenge. In Siddha-Haima-Shabdanushasana, Hemachandra has given two examples of grammar mentioning Jayasimha's victory over Saurashtra.
The verses attributed to Ramachandra, disciple Hemachandra, in Prabandha-Chintamani of Merutunga, Jayasimha is referred as Giridurgamalla, i. The Prabandhachintamani also mentions Jayasimha's victory over Saurashtra. Merutunga was a 14th century Jain scholar from present-day Gujarat in India. Sen , p. Kailash Chand Jain , p.
Rajyagor, S. History of Gujarat.
Medieval Indian literature
New Delhi: S. Sources Cort, John E. Dedicated to Shiva, it houses a 7. The temple's construction is believed to have started in the 11th century, during the reign of the Paramara king Bhoja. The construction was abandoned for unknown reasons, with the architectural plans engraved on the surrounding rocks. The unfinished materials abandoned at the site, the architectural drawings carved on the rocks, and the mason's marks have helped scholars understand the temple construction techniques of 11th-century India.
History The Bhojpur temple is believed to have been constructed by the 11th-century Paramara king Bhoja. Tradition also attributes to him the establishment of Bhojpur and the construction of now-breached dams in the area. He penned numerous novels, collections of essays, historical research on medieval religious movements of India especially Kabir and Natha Sampradaya, and historical outlines of Hindi literature. Steeped in traditional knowledge of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, and modern Indian languages, Dwivedi was destined to be the great bridge maker between the past and the present.
As a student of Sanskrit, steeped in the Sastras, he gave a new evaluation to Sahitya-sastra and he can rightly be considered as a great commentator on the textual tradition of the Indian literature. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in for his contribution to Hindi literature, and the Sahitya Akademi Award for his collection of essays, 'Alok Parva'. Rani ki Vav or Ranki vav lit. It is located on the banks of Saraswati river.
Silted over, it was rediscovered in s and restored in s by the Archaeological Survey of India. The finest and one of the largest example of its kind and designed as an inverted temple highlighting the sanctity of water, the stepwell is divided into seven levels of stairs with sculptural panels; more than principle sculptures and over a thousand minor ones combine religious, mythological and secular imagery. History Inside Rani ki vav Rani ki vav was constructed during the rule of the Chaulukya dynasty.
Tod's listing of the royal races The 36 royal races Chathis Rajkula is a listing of Indian social groups purported to be the royal ruling clans of several states and Janapads spread over northern Indian subcontinent. Among the historical attempts at creating a comprehensive listing of the 36 are the Kumarapala Prabandha of Acharya Jinamandan Gani of AD, Prithviraj Raso of uncertain date, and Colonel James Tod, writing in Kumarapala Prabandha list The Kumarpal Prabandha list gives 36 clans. It starts with dynasties mentioned in the classics, Ikshvaku, Yadu, Surya and Chandra.
It also mentions local dynasties like Shilahara, Chapotkata, Nikumbh etc. Many of the names are less known. Notably, it includes the Maurya. Kumarpal Prabandha was consulted by Tod, he refers to it as Kumarpal Charit. The period of his reign is dated approximately CE to CE, although some historians believe that he ascended the throne before CE. Bhoja inherited a kingdom centered around the Malwa region, and made several attempts to expand it varying results.
He managed to annex territories as far as northern parts of Konkan, but these territorial gains were short-lived. Apart from epigraphic records, much of the information about Bhoja's military campaigns comes from legendary accounts, including Hemachandra 12th century , Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani 14th. He was the younger brother of Munja, and the father of Bhoja. Background No inscriptions issued by Sindhuraja have been discovered, although he is mentioned in several later Paramara inscriptions, including inscriptions of Bhoja.
Much of the information about his life comes from Nava-sahasanka-charita, an eulogistic composition by his court poet Padmagupta. According to the 14th century poet Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani, Sindhuraja was the biological son of Simhadantabhatta Siyaka , while Munja was an adopted child. However, historians doubt the authenticity of this claim. However, according to Nava-Sahasanka-Charita and epigraphic evidence, Sindhuraja was the successor of Munja.
Khengara was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned in the 12th century. According to bardic tales, he was a son of Navaghana and had succeeded him. The Someshwara's Kirtikaumudi, the Puratana-prabandha-sangraha, and the Prabandhachintamani - all mentions Jayasimha's victory over Saurashtra. Vastupala died CE was a prime minister of the Vaghela king Viradhavala and his successor Visaladeva, who ruled in present-day Gujarat region of India, in the early 13th century.
Although he served in an administrative and military capacity, he was also a patron of art, literature and public works. He, together with his brother Tejapala,[A] assisted in the restoration of peace in the kingdom, and served in a number of campaigns against Lata, Godraha, Kutch and the Delhi Sultanate. The brothers were instrumental in the construction of the Luniga-vasahi temple on Mount Abu and the Vastupala-vihara on Girnar.
Sources of information A large number of literary sources and inscriptions give information on the life and works of Vastupala and his brother Tejapala. Literary sources Contemporary literary sources The last canto of Naranarayan-ananda, written by Vastupala himself, gives some information on him and his family.
Often characterized as an ideal king, he is known for his generosity, courage, and patronage of scholars. Vikramaditya is featured in hundreds of traditional Indian legends, including those in Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi. Many describe him as a universal ruler, with his capital at Ujjain Pataliputra or Pratishthana in a few stories. According to popular tradition, Vikramaditya began the Vikrama Samvat era in 57 BCE after defeating the Shakas, and those who believe that he is based on a historical figure place him around the first century BCE. However, this era is identified as "Vikrama Samvat" after the ninth century CE.
Other scholars believe that Vikramaditya is a mythical character, since several legends about him are fantastic in nature.
The grazing conditions
They are also included in Tod's list of 36 royal races. Sarvartha Chintamani is one of the important books of astrology belonging to ancient India. Written in Sanskrit verse it deals with the effects of each house in the natal chart in far greater detail besides giving the description about the planets, their effects, lifespan and prosperity. However, it makes a clear distinction between benefic and malefic indications and their impact, although that distinction may be prima facie indicating contrary results. Details Sarvatha Chintamani, meaning the Gem of superior desires or thoughts, is believed to have been written by Venkatesa Sarma in the 13th Century A.
In the Introductory note to his translation of this Sanskrit text J. Bhasin writes that Sarvartha Chintamani is one of the top astrolological works. It also provides practical and very valuable comments on the subjects relating to the Kumarapala r. He ruled present-day Gujarat and surrounding areas, from his capital Anahilapataka modern Patan.
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A descendant of the Chaulukya ruler Bhima I, Kumarapala appears to have spent his early life in exile to avoid persecution by his relative and predecessor Jayasimha Siddharaja. He ascended the throne after Jayasimha's death, with help of his brother-in-law. He ruled for nearly three decades, during which he subdued a number of neigubouring kings, including the Chahamana king Arnoraja and the Shilahara king Mallikarjuna.
He also annexed the Paramara territory of Malwa to his kingdom by defeating an usurper named Ballala. Kumarapala was a disciple of the Jain scholar Hemachandra, and adopted Jainism towards the end of his reign. Multiple legendary biographies by medieval Jain chroniclers present him as the last great royal patron of Jainism. Background Sources of information Kumarapala was well known for his patr.
The Chola—Chalukya wars were a series of wars fought from C. Most of these conflicts were initiated by the Chalukyas who were defeated by the Cholas and forced to return to their capital. These recurring conflicts eventually exhausted both empires leaving them vulnerable to other enemies. Chola conquests in the Chalukyan kingdom All the Chola—Chalukya battles took place in Southern early battles and Central later battles Chalukyan country and a few in Vengi which the Cholas dominated until the rise of Ganapati of Kakatiya dynasty.
Year of the battle C. Patan, an ancient fortified city, was founded in AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda dynasty. It is a historical place located on the bank of the endorheic Saraswati River. History Patan was established by the Chavda ruler Vanaraja in 8th century as "Anahilapataka". Historian Tertius Chandler estimates that Anhilwara Patan is built on this ancient city was the tenth-largest city in the world in the year , with a population of approximately , Ahir or Aheer is an ethnic group in India.
Some members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous. The traditional occupation of Ahirs are pastoralism and agriculture. They are found throughout India but are particularly concentrated in the northern areas. He ruled the Sapadalaksha country, which included parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western India. Arnoraja repulsed a Ghaznavid invasion from the west, and also defeated several neighbouring Hindu kings including the Paramaras and the Tomaras. He had to face defeats against the Chaulukyas, and was ultimately killed by his own son, Jagaddeva.
Arnoraja's father Ajayaraja. Find spots of the inscriptions issued during the Vaghela reign map of India. The Vaghelas were the last Hindu monarchs to rule large parts of Gujarat, before the Muslim conquest of the region. Medieval bardic literature includes them among the Agnivashi Rajput dynasties. Early members of the Vaghela family served the Chaulukyas in the 12th century CE, and claimed to be a branch of that dynasty. In the 13th century, during the reign of the weak Chaulukya king Bhima II, the Vaghela general Lavanaprasada and his son Viradhavala became very powerful, although they continued to nominally acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty.
In the mids, Viradhavala's son Visaladeva usurped the throne. Origin The Vaghelas usurped power from the Chaulukya dynasty. According to the 14th ce. Munja reigned c. He is known for consolidating the Paramara kingdom, and for patronizing poets and scholars.
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Munja achieved military successes against the Chahamanas, the Guhilas, the Hunas, the Kalachuris, and the ruler of Gurjara region possibly a Chaulukya or Pratihara ruler. The king discovered him in a munja grassland. Since the king did not have any children of his own at that time, he adopted the child and named him Munja. Although the king later had a biological son named Sindhuraja, h. Chamatkara Chintamani is a revered treatise on the predictive part of Hindu astrology. It comprises one hundred and eight Sanskrit Slokas written by Bhatta Narayana. Brij Behari Lal Sharma, the modern translator and commentator of this treatise, writes that it was probably written in the 14th Century A.
Chamatkara Chintamani of Bhatta Narayana 8th ed. Mularaja r. Also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or Solanki, this dynasty ruled parts of present-day Gujarat. Mularaja supplanted the last Chavda king, and founded an independent kingdom with his capital in Anahilapataka in CE. It states that the mythical progenitor of the Chaulukya dynasty was Chulukya, a great warrior.
He established his capital at Madhupadma, and the dynasty came to be known as the Chaulukyas after him. His successors included several kings including Simha-Vikrama and Hari-Vikrama. After 85 descendants of Hari-Vikrama came Rama. Bhata or Sahajarama, the son of Rama, defeated the Shakas. Bhata's son Dadakka defeated the Gaja kings of Pipasa.
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Dadakka's kingdom occupied by Kanchikavyala, who was succeeded by the king Raji. Mularaja was the son of Raji and his queen Liladevi. Ranakadevi was a legendary 12th century queen of Khengara, the Chudasama ruler of Saurashtra region of western India. She is mentioned in the bardic tragic romance representing the battle between Chudasama king Khengara and Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. The fame of her beauty reached to Jayasimha and determined to marry her. Meanwhile Khengara marry her which enraged Jayasimha.
The abandoned child was found a potter named Hadmat or Jam Rawal who raised her as his own daughter. He was succeeded by Yogaraja ruled 35 years , followed by Kshemraja 25 years , Bhuyada 29 years , Virsimha 25 years and Ratnaditya 15 years. Ratnaditya was succeeded by Samantsimha also known as Chuyadadeva who ruled seven years.
Samantsimha did not have any children so he adopted his nephew Mularaja who overthrew him in and established the Chaulukya dynasty. Sources of information The chief sour. Tailapa II r. Tailapa claimed descent from the earlier Chalukyas of Vatapi, and initially ruled as a Rashtrakuta vassal from the Tardavadi province in the modern Bijapur district of Karnataka. When the Rashtrakuta power declined following an invasion by the Paramara king Siyaka, Tailapa overthrew the Rashtrakuta king Karka II, and established a new dynasty.
Tailapa spent several years consolidating his control over the western Deccan region between the Narmada and the Tungabhadra rivers. Gradually, several former Rashtrakuta feudatories, including the Shilaharas, acknowledged his suzerainty.
Tailapa successfully resisted Chola and Paramara invasions, and imprisoned and killed the invading Paramara king Munja. His general Barapa captured the Lata region in present-day Gujarat, establishing the Lata Chalukya line of chiefs. Tailapa's successors continued to rule the western. Etymologically, "Lalitha" means "She Who Plays". In the root form vyutpatti , the word "Lalita" means "spontaneous" from which the meaning "easy" is derived and implicitly extends to "play".
Names Lalita Sahasranamam contains the thousand names of the Hindu mother goddess Lalita. It is the only sahasranama that does not repeat a single name. Further, in order to maintain the meter, sahasranamas generally use the artifice of adding words like tu, api, ca, and hi, which are conjunctions that do not necessarily add to the meaning of the name except in cases of interpretation. The Lalita Sahasranama does not use any such auxiliary conjunctions and is unique in being an enumeration of holy names.
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Siyaka reigned c. He was the first independent sovereign of the Paramara royal house, and is the earliest Paramara ruler known from his own inscriptions. He started out as a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, and participated in their campaigns against the Pratiharas. This ultimately led to the decline of the Rashtrakutas, and the establishment of the Paramaras as an imperial power.
Siyaka is also referred to as Siyaka II to distinguish him from Siyaka I, an earlier and possibly fictional Paramara king mentioned in the later Udaipur Prashasti inscription. His other names include Sri-Harshadeva and Simhabhata.
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Find spots of inscriptions issued during the reign of Karna I Karna r. He ruled the present-day Gujarat and surrounding areas, from his capital Anahilapataka modern Patan. Karna succeeded his father Bhima I, who had invaded the Paramara kingdom of Malwa at the time of Bhoja's death. Karna was forced to retreat from Malwa by Bhoja's brother Udayaditya.
He annexed Lata to the Chaulukya territory by defeating a Kalachuri general, but lost it within a few years. He also suffered a defeat against the Chahamanas of Naddula, who raided the Chaulukya capital during his reign. Karna is credited with defeating a Bhil chief of Ashapalli, and laying the foundation of the Karnavati city, identified with the modern Ahmedabad in western India.
Karna married Mayanalladevi, who was the mother of his son and successor Jayasimha Siddharaja. According to. The Chalukyas of Lata were an Indian dynasty, which ruled the Lata region of present-day Gujarat during 10th and 11th centuries. They ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas in their early years, and were ultimately defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat Solankis. He might have been made the governor of the Lata region by Tailapa. Mularaja, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat, asked the Sapadalaksha ruler not to attack him until he dealt with Barapa.
He then defeated Barapa, which prompted the Sapadalaksha king to flee Gujarat. The group of stars arranged in a definite pattern is called. Travel by your stars Use astrology to plan perfect vacation. Slideshow By: Pallavi Thakur. Total views Slideshow By: Pallavi Thakur. An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there. One masterpiece from the group stands out — the Temple of.
Ancient India in the Age of the Mantras, asserts that the Vedic Hindus were as mixed in race as their twenty-seven nakshatras or groups of the lunar zodiac, who are said to be daughters of attacked Kanauj, and apparently dethroned Mahi-pala. His or seat of the ghosts and Yama, the Hindu Pluto. On the west of. Amarakosa is the world's first dictionary cum thesaurus. He is compared with Pluto, the God of Underworld in classical mythology. He is very. The gods and goddesses of Europe are but copies of their Hindu originals.
Illusion and reality - the meaning of anxiety, D. J Smail.. Mahi-pala was a person of noble birth, endowed with shining abilities, Rajeshwar asked, "Who is at the door, and what is the meaning of the noise I hear?